It is a part of *data preparation*

If we have a feature that is all positive or all negative, this will make learning harder for the nodes in the layer that follows. They will have to

*zigzag*like the ones following a sigmoid activation function.If we transform our data so it has a mean close to zero, we will thereby make sure that there are both positive values and negative ones.

**Formula:**

$normalized=\frac{x_{i}-\mu }{\sigma}$

Benifit: It makes cost function

Jeasier and faster to optimize 😋

Number of layers, number of hidden units, learning rates, activation functions...

It is too difficult to choose them all true at the first time so it is an iterative process

Idea ➡ Code ➡ Experiment ➡ Idea 🔁

So the point here is how to go efficiently around this cycle 🤔

For good evaluation it is good to split dataset like the following:

Part | Description |

Training Set | Used to fit the model |

Development (Validation) Set | Used to provide an unbiased evaluation while tuning model hyperparameters |

Test Set | Used to provide an unbiased evaluation of a |

The actual dataset that we use to train the model (weights and biases in the case of Neural Network).

The model

seesandlearnsfrom this data 👶

The sample of data used to provide an unbiased evaluation of a model fit on the training dataset while tuning model hyperparameters. The evaluation becomes more biased as skill on the validation dataset is incorporated into the model configuration.

The model

seesthis data, butnever learnsfrom this 👨🚀

The sample of data used to provide an unbiased evaluation of a final model fit on the training dataset. It provides the gold standard used to evaluate the model 🌟.

**Implementation Note:** Test set should contain carefully sampled data that spans the various classes that the model would face, when used in the real world 🚩🚩🚩❗❗❗

It is only used once a model is completely trained 👨🎓

**Bias** is how far are the predicted values from the actual values. If the average predicted values are far off from the actual values then the bias is high.

Having high-bias implies that the model is too simple and does not capture the complexity of data thus

underfittingthe data 🤕

Variance is the variability of model prediction for a given data point or a value which tells us spread of our data.

Model with high variance fails to generalize on the data which it hasn’t seen before.

Having high-variance implies that algorithm models random noise present in the training data and it

overfitsthe data 🤓

If we aren't able to get wanted performance we should ask these questions to improve our model:

We check the performance of the following solutions on dev set

Do we have high bias? If yes, it is a trainig problem, we may:

Try bigger network

Train longer

Try better optimization algorithm

Try another NN architecture

We can say that it is a structural problem 🤔

Do we have high variance? If yes, it is a dev set performance problem, we may:

Get more data

Do regularization

L2, dropout, data augmentation

We can say that maybe it is data or algorithmic problem 🤔

No high variance and no high bias?

TADAAA it is done 🤗🎉🎊